Archive for the ‘Family Law’ Category
by Tom Hogan
Although a registered domestic partnership (RDP) in California grants both parties all the rights, benefits and obligations as parties in a valid marriage, there are still many differences. For example, federal law and many other states do not acknowledge domestic partnerships. Consequently, what are the disadvantages in choosing a domestic partnership over marriage?
- Because RDPs are not federally recognized, they are unable to take advantage of over 1130 rights and benefits afforded exclusively to married couples.
- RDPs are frequently looked down upon and do not receive the same honor, respect and privileges as married couples.
- In an emergency, RDPs may not be permitted to make important medical decisions for their incapable partners.
- Since the federal government does not recognize RDPs, they would not be provided the same tax benefits as legally married couples.
- A court order regarding support for a current/former domestic partner is not recognized federally like one for a current/former marriage mate is.
The Law Office of Thomas Hogan is a family law specialist who is prepared to help in your time of need. Feel free to contact us if you are in need of help. Call (209) 214-6600 to speak with our Modesto California Attorneys.
by Tom Hogan
For those who have little or no money for attorney fees, or have run out of funds to pay attorney fees, a solution for the attorneys and the client, where the client has equity in a community residence, a family law attorney’s real property lien (FLARPL).
Pursuant to Family Code 2033, either party may lien his or her interest in community real property to pay reasonable attorney fees. The lien attaches only to the encumbering party’s interest in the community real property and is voidable and unenforceable to the extent it encumbers a nonconsenting spouse’s interest.
What attorneys must keep in mind and the client as well, is that in order to enforce the lien certain procedures must be followed. Notice of the lien must be personally served on the other party or his or her attorney of record at least 15 days before recordation of the encumbrance. The notice must contain a full description of the property; the encumbering party’s belief as to fair market value; encumbrances on the property; list of community assets and liabilities (PDD’s); the amount of the family law attorney’s lien.
The other party has a right to object by an ex parte motion. The court may deny the family law attorney’s real property lien based on a finding the encumbrance would likely result in an unequal division of property because it would impair the encumbering party’s ability to meet his or her fair share of the community obligations or would otherwise be unjust under the circumstances.
by Tom Hogan
If child support or spousal support is not paid, parties often ask their attorney to being a Contempt Action. The actions themselves are not as simple as one might think. Often the result is frustrating for the petitioner as the support due is not readily paid by filing a Contempt Action.
In order to be to successful in filing for contempt(s), one must strictly adhere to rule of procedural due process and the set forth the required elements of proof. As such, there must be a valid underlying order which is clear and unambiguous and it must be in writing; the defendant or citee must have knowledge of the court order; the defendant or citee must have the ability to comply with the court order; the citee must have willfully intended to violate the order; declarations must be provided to outline the issues; the Contempt Action once filed must be personally served; the citee must be arraigned; an arraignment and plea are conducted and a trial if held is subject to strict time limitations. Specific findings must be made at trial as to the facts upon which the court finds the citee guilty of contempt. The court must make a finding that the citee had the ability to comply with the underlying order.
What happens more often than not is that the court imposes purge terms as the citee is not able to pay or has limitations on bringing the outstanding support current. This is the frustrating part for those expecting to receive support is that what is collected to due to be collected is a fraction of what is owed. So the take away, is be careful on filing contempts and to be judicious, because one may well be out attorney fees with little to show for the efforts. Family Law court, despite the wishes of one filing the contempts, will not throw a party in jail for failure to comply.
Thomas Hogan is a Family Law specialist who is prepared to help. Feel free to contact us if you are considering filing for contempt in Modesto CA. Our attorney is a Family Law Specialist in Stanislaus County and is also a licensed Certified Public Accountant (CPA). Call (209) 214-6600 to speak with our Modesto California Family Attorneys.
by Tom Hogan
Spouses who are seeking spousal support as well as spouses who become obligated to pay support, must keep in mind issues of domestic violence (ie any history of domestic violence between the parties or against either party’s child) is a factor under Family Code 4320 in determining spousal support.
Under Family Code 4320 a court must consider a variety of specified circumstances in making an order for spousal support. Among these is documented evidence of any history of domestic violence, as defined in Family Code 6211, between the parties or perpetrated by either party against either party’s child.
Under new legislation, even if one pleas out as “no contest”, this is considered and included as documented evidence of domestic violence.
The Law Office of Thomas Hogan in Modesto CA is here to help. Feel free to contact us if you are considering a divorce from your spouse or legal separation. Thomas P. Hogan is a Family Law Specialist in Modesto California, don’t settle for anyone when determining your rights. Call (209) 214-6600.
by Tom Hogan
We get many calls about annulment of a marriage. There has been fairly recent case authority on this matter in Ceja V Rudolph & Sletten, Inc (2013) 56 C4th 1113. So if you want to annul your marriage only the party who believed in good faith that the marriage was valid will be declared a putative spouse, where the court will divide property only on the request of a party who the court has deemed is a putative spouse. On what constitutes a good faith belief in the validity of the marriage, one must present evidence under the subjective standard (ie duration of marriage; children; sharing property and accounts; public communication of marital status; wages of each party used for the benefit of the community).
by Tom Hogan
Restraining Orders are so common that when one is served a restraining order by their spouse, the other spouse wants to file one against the protected party (ie mutual restraining orders) as well. While this may be a knee jerk reaction, the legislature has clarified what conditions must be met before a court will grant a mutual restraining order.
Family Code 6305 provides that each party must present written evidence of abuse or domestic violence in an application for relief using judicial council forms, and that a responsive pleading to the initial restraining order does not satisfy the party’s obligation to present written evidence of abuse or domestic violence in an affirmative pleading.
So the take away is, if you want a mutual restraining order and have been served with one, you must take proactive steps using the proper forms, and can not just ask for one in responsive pleadings to what has been served.
The Law Office of Thomas Hogan is here to help. Feel free to contact us if you are considering a divorce from your spouse, a legal separation, or have questions regarding domestic violence restraining orders. Thomas P. Hogan is a Family Law Specialist in Stanislaus County who is also a licensed Certified Public Accountant (CPA). Don’t settle for less when determining your rights. Call (209) 214-6600 in Modesto California.
by Chris Dietrich
What is a right of first refusal for childcare?
A right of first refusal, also called a right of first option for child care, is a general term for a child custody order provision which provides that if the custodial parent is unable to be with the child during their scheduled time (be it for work, school, or other engagements) that the other parent is given the option to watch the child before non-parties (like babysitters, nannies, or daycare providers) are called in. The idea behind these types of provisions is that it is best for the child’s development to be with parents to the maximum extent possible.
The devil in the details of right of first refusal orders
As stated above, the term “right of first refusal” is a general term describing a type of order. Without specific language regarding the purpose, intention, and limitations of how a right of first refusal should operate, an agreement that the parties “have a right of first refusal” isn’t worth the paper it’s printed on.
- How frequently are situations where a right of first refusal may apply going to come up? If a schedule provides one parent with time which they are consistently unable to exercise it may be necessary to consider revising the general parenting schedule to establish a more stable routine.
- Is work related childcare included in the right of first refusal? A common reason that one may use childcare is so that they can go to work. Some parties expressly exclude work related childcare from the right of first refusal so that the child can have a more consistent routine, while others want to include work related childcare needs in a right of first refusal to maximize the time the child is with a parent. It is important to address this particular need in crafting a right of first refusal.
- What minimum amount of time should the custodial parent be unavailable before a right of first refusal kicks in? Viewed legalistically, a general right of first refusal without specific limitations could require one parent to call the other if they have to have someone watch the child for a quick shopping trip, requiring the parties to spend more time coordinating logistics than the amount of time the custodial parent is going to be away. To avoid such an absurd result the language of a right of first refusal order only comes in to play if the custodial parent has to be away for several hours or more. The minimum amount of time which is appropriate varies on each individual family and their needs.
- What about time with extended family? Even if a parent is unavailable during their parenting time there are a variety of good reasons they may want to have the child spend time with extended family members. Read legalistically, a right of first refusal could be read to bar this time with extended family unless the custodial parent is present. It’s a good idea to discuss this issue and determine what exceptions like this may apply to a right of first refusal.
The right of first refusal is such a common part of California child custody orders that the California Judicial Council added form language to an optional child custody order attachment for the courts and family law litigants to use to create a right of first refusal for childcare. The form language reads as follows:
“Right of first option of child care. In the event either parent requires child care for (specify number) ______ hours or more while the children are in his or her custody, the other parent must be given first opportunity, with as much prior notice as possible, to care for the children before other arrangements are made. Unless specifically agreed or ordered by the court, this order does not include regular child care needed when a parent is working.” – FL 341(D) – Optional Additional Provisions – Physical Custody Attachment
While the judicial council form language is good and will work for many parents, it is important to ensure that the considerations above are addressed so that a right of first refusal is right for you and your unique needs.
Who is a right of first refusal good for?
Whether a right of first refusal makes sense for you depends on many factors. My experience working with a variety of families shows that generally a right of first refusal can be successful in the following situations.
- If the parents have a good communication skills with each other. The implementation of a right of first refusal requires regular civil communication between parents. Of course, good communication skills do not happen by accident and can be learned, giving such an order a greater chance of success, but this order should not used for parents who are constantly arguing.
- If one (or both) parent(s) have variable schedules. If work, school, or other constraints require one or both of the parents to be unavailable for chunks of their parenting time, making it impossible to set an exact workable schedule, a right of first refusal may be the best solution to that problem.
- Parents who work together with flexibility and cooperation. Like many other parenting issues, being flexible and cooperative with the other parent is good for the productivity of the co-parenting relationship and is good for the children involved. Parents who do this well in practice (but who may need a little help establishing general guidelines on how to do so) can often benefit from a right of first refusal.
Who is a right of first refusal not good for?
Experience also shows that there are some for which a right of first refusal would not be a good idea and may even make a difficult situation worse.
- If there is a history of domestic violence between the parties (whether or not a restraining order is in effect) a right of first refusal may cause more harm than good as it requires a high level of communication with the other parent.
- If one parent’s time is limited to supervised visitation a right of first refusal would not be consistent with the child’s best interests.
- If the parents do not communicate well a right of first refusal will likely not operate well in practice.
- If one or both parents are inclined to legalistic behaviors and interpretations of court orders regardless of how that impacts the children, such an order may lead to disputes.
- If the parents do not live close to each other, for practical reasons.
For assistance in determining whether a right of first refusal is workable for you and your needs please contact our office to schedule a consultation with one of our experienced child custody attorneys.
by Chris Dietrich
In the start of a family law case with minor children, the parties often devote much attention to establishing an amount for child support. In almost all cases when parents separate the court will institute an amount of support payable by one part to the other for the parties’ children. This ordered support continues until support is modified by the court or terminated by law. This article addresses those circumstances which give rise to the termination of child support and circumstances which may allow it to continue into adulthood.
Termination of Child Support
As a matter of law there are certain conditions which terminate an obligation to provide support for a child. Generally child support will end when:
- The child dies.
- The child is emancipated.
- The child gets married.
- The child is adopted terminating the parental rights of the supporting parent.
- The child reaches the age of 18 and is no longer a full time high school student.
- The child reaches age 19 (regardless of whether the child is still in high school or not).
Absent certain exceptional circumstances if one of the terminating conditions listed above occurs, child support terminates as an operation of law. After such happens the parent receiving support is obligated to notify the parent paying support and is obligated to refund any support paid after support obligation terminates.
Child Support into adulthood
The court can in certain circumstances, as listed below, order that support for a child continues into adulthood. However, if these circumstances do not exist the court lacks the authority to continue child support.
Support to pay for colleges
While some states have instituted laws that require parents to chip in for their adult child’s college education, California has not done so. The court cannot order a parent to contribute to an adult child’s college expenses over that parent’s objection. However, the parents can agree to pay for a child’s college education, whether informally or as a court order, and if made into a court order the court can enforce that agreement according to its terms. Absent such an agreement, a court order to pay for an adult child’s college education expenses is invalid and is beyond the court’s authority.
Support for adult disabled children
Family code 3910(a) creates an obligation for a parent to support “a child of whatever age who is incapacitated from earning a living and without sufficient means”. The courts have generally imposed a support obligation under this statute when the facts or circumstances indicate that the child has a physical or mental disability which prevents them from being able to work if they chose to do so. In cases where a now adult child has such a disability a careful examination of the facts is needed to determine the child’s vocational interests and their ability to work (whether with or without accommodations). Cases dealing with support for adult children who may be disabled are incredibly complicated and fact specific and should not be undertaken without legal assistance.
If you have any questions regarding child support and its termination please contact our office and set up a time to meet with our attorneys.
by Tom Hogan
Q: Do I need to name a legal guardian for my children?
A: As parents, we would do anything to protect our children. We buy the best and safest car seat, the best strollers, we make sure they attend the best schools and receive the best education possible. But what if something happens to you? Have you done what you need to do to protect your children? Have you made plans to best prepare your children for a future without you? No parent wants to think about not being around to raise their children. I get it. It’s a scary thought. But what is scarier, is NOT thinking about it. If you do not decide proactively what will happen to your children if anything happens to you, a court will decide for you. The problem with that is the court doesn’t know your children. While the judge is obligated to consider the best interests of your child when appointing a legal guardian, the judge won’t know your children like you do.
As a parent, I want to be the one to decide who will raise my children if I cannot. I have worked hard to raise my children a certain way. Naming a legal guardian ensures that your children are raised by the person you want, in the way you want. When you name a legal guardian, you take the control into your own hands. You name the person/couple you trust, love and know would care for your children the way you want your children to be raised. You get to choose the guardian with whom your children have a close relationship, a guardian who has a similar parenting philosophy, similar moral and values, similar religious beliefs and a similar discipline style as you.
I have clients who tell me they know exactly what would happen to their children… “My sister (mother, brother, etc.) would raise my kids.” However, they do not have legal documentation in place to ensure their sister (mother, brother, etc.) would become their children’s legal guardian. The truth is, unless you have legal documentation in place, you don’t know who would raise your children if anything happens to you. That is why, if you have minor children at home, you need to have legal documentation in place naming a legal guardian to raise your children if anything happens to you.
Naming a guardian for your children can also help alleviate unnecessary confusion and conflict that could result if more than one family member petitions the court to become guardian of your children.
This is not an uncommon issue. This is what happened to the Barber Family. The Barbers were a young family from Southern California with three sons. The Barbers took their family on a road trip to Arizona and were involved in a fatal car accident. The parents passed away and all three children survived. They were placed in foster care until a relative came to get them. What happened next could have been avoided if the Barbers had taken the time to name a legal guardian for their children. More than one family member petitioned the court for guardianship of the boys. The family fought for months over what the parents would have wanted for their boys. Accusations were made, nine attorneys were retained and many thousands of dollars were spent fighting in court. In the end, the court made a decision to place the boys with one family member. However, by this time, damage had already been done, relationships were strained and the boys missed out on relationships with their extended family.
While the court did make a decision, we still don’t know what the parents would have wanted because they did not name guardians for their boys. What I can imagine is that the Barbers did not want their familial relationships torn apart fighting over who would be named legal guardian for their boys. This is one of the biggest personal risks we face when we do not take the time to name legal guardians for our children.
If you have minor children at home, it is imperative you take the time to legally document who you would want to be the guardian of your minor children if anything happens to you. If you cannot decide who you would choose, we can walk you through a series of steps that will help you reach the best decision for you and your children. It is not easy to make these decisions and they should not be made on your own. It is important to have good legal guidance. Contact an attorney in our office to help guide you through the process, answer all of your questions, help you consider all of your options and to help avoid harm in the future.
by Chris Dietrich
Parties who are filing or responding to a petition for dissolution of marriage will quickly come across a section for them to state their “date of separation” on the court’s pleading forms. The question for almost all parties then immediately becomes, when did we separate? And why does the court need to know? Why does this matter?
Why does date of separation matter?
The date of separation is important in California divorces for two main reasons:
- Property Division: California law provides that generally property which is acquired by either spouse after the date of separation is the separate property of that spouse, which is 100% theirs. This can include salaries, real property, personal property, accumulation of retirement benefits, as well as other property items. While there are major complications which can arise in determining whether an item was received fully from a party’s separate property, in general the date of separation can have a significant impact on how the parties’ property is divided.
- Spousal Support: One of the biggest factors that the court considers in setting the duration and amount of spousal support is the length of the parties’ marriage. Generally, the longer the parties are married the longer the spousal support will last (and potentially the higher it will be). So, a choice between two different dates of separation can have a major impact on the support rights and obligations of the parties.
How does the court determine our date of separation?
Determining the exact dates that parties did in fact separate is a question that has perplexed the courts throughout the years and has led to inconsistent decisions. For some parties there is no dispute and the separation is clear. For example, if a husband and wife decide to live in separate residences on January 1st and the husband moves out that same day to his own apartment with the wife staying the marital home, January 1st is their separation date. For other couples with multiple move-ins and move-outs, ongoing financial ties, and other ongoing joint activities the question of a date of separation can be even more complicated. A third common category of couples may live under the same roof but separate their finances, schedules, and activities and live together as “roommates”. What is the court looking for in deciding when the parties separated? Is it about parties emotional connection? Physical intimacy? Their living situation?
In 2015 the California Supreme Court weighed in on the issue of the parties’ date of separation for the first time. In the case In Re Marriage of Davis the Supreme Court established that for parties to be separated they must be living in separate residences. In essence, parties are not separated until they no longer live under the same roof. However, the court also recognized the reality that parties may live in the same household and still be separated in certain exceptional circumstances, but did not elaborate on what those circumstances could be. This caveat, buried in a footnote in the court’s opinion, leaves the door open for this rule to change in the future. As it stands now though, parties must first and foremost be living in separate residences to establish their separation.
Other older cases make clear that parties can still be married (unseparated) even though they do not live in the same residence. In essence it is not enough for the parties to live in different residences; the parties’ conduct and the circumstances of their marriage may refute a finding that they are separated. The best example of this comes from the case Marriage of Baragry, where the husband lived with his girlfriend/employee in his own apartment, but often went home to his wife and children to enjoy her home cooked meals, have her do his laundry, and otherwise maintained ongoing ties with his wife while living with his girlfriend. The court refused to allow the husband to claim that they separated when he first moved out in light of the benefits husband continued to receive due to his ongoing relationship with his wife, even though he didn’t actually “live” there. Essentially, the court will not allow parties to have it both ways.
The cases on date of separation are complicated and at times contradictory. As discussed above, this issue can be critical and can have a substantial impact on the rights of the parties. If you have questions about the date of separation in your case and the best approach to take, it is important that you contact one of our attorneys to guide you through this process.